Angel in a Purple Dress by Judith Ivory – A Assessment

Angel in a Purple Dress was earlier posted in 1988 beneath the title &#39Starlit Surrender&#39 with the writer, Judith Ivory, writing as Judy Cuevas. The new title does not show up to be very easily related to the story. The heroine, Christina, is the angel, but nowhere in the story is she described putting on red. There is a quotation specified at the start of Section A person of the e-book – &#39Except for the corn poppy, the pimpernel is the only scarlet flower in all of England&#39. So most likely the red component arrives in when the hero, Adrien, conjures her up in his favorite opium- induced fantasy, when he takes the opium (which is derived from the vivid red poppy plant) for ache relief. She&#39s also an angel in her battle to preserve him when anyone else thinks he&#39s lifeless.

Christina Bower is the stunning only baby of a highly regarded barrister on the King&#39s Bench. In the course of her very initially time in London, she has a very short meeting with the infamous libertine Adrien Hunt, seventh Earl of Kewischester. She finds him fully intriguing but even her title-eager father considers Adrien an unsuitable match for his daughter. Her father encourages a union amongst Christina and Richard Pinn, eldest son of a baron, only to have Pinn divorce her three a long time afterwards for apparently currently being sterile.

Needing to escape to somewhere silent until eventually the divorce is finalised, the now 23 year previous Christina accompanies her cousin Evie to an earl&#39s estate outside the house of London. Christina experienced not realised that the absentee earl was 35 year previous Adrien. Adrien is an arrogant 50 percent-French British peer whose affairs are legendary. Evie even tells Christina that there is not a girl inside of fifty miles of the earl&#39s estate who does not know the earl intimately, herself integrated. He&#39s loaded, smart, handsome and lethally charming. The attraction amongst Adrien and Christina is instant and palpable.

Christina&#39s not immune to Adrien&#39s charms, however knows she really should operate from him, due to the fact providing in to her thoughts would be tantamount to inviting heartbreak, as he&#39d hardly ever contemplate her as a wife and she could not tolerate becoming his mistress. It might nicely be superb to be with him, but in the conclude he&#39d split her heart, due to the fact he&#39d at some point need to marry and create a legal heir.

The story is set in England and France at the time of the French Revolution and the second 50 percent of it is packed with action and adventure as Adrien (in Scarlet Pimpernel method) tries to rescue imprisoned French aristocrats from the guillotine. Christina unwittingly finds herself in the middle of Adrien&#39s surreptitious operations. The most important concentration of the story is on Adrien and Christina and their challenging relationship.

On the surface area, this e-book has it all: romance, intrigue, thriller, and action.

But the hero, even though on the just one hand has his appealing traits, in my view they get a bit outweighed by his imperfect kinds. I realise that this was set in the 18th Century and that he was an Earl. However, I felt his steps have been also selfish. Nevertheless on reflection, most likely he did not know any other way to go about finding what he desired, not possessing encountered these types of persistent opposition ahead of, or the increasing desperation to hold a grasp on what he arrived to realise he desired most – Christina.

He is surely no &#39fake rake&#39 – he has five illegitimate little ones from some of his former affairs, which Christina understandably finds disturbing, even even though she&#39s amazed that he actively and genuinely cares for them. As well as he does not promptly forsake his rakish techniques and other mistresses on initially meeting and pursuing Christina.

When Christina originally refuses to come to be his mistress, he does give her some space and respects her decision. However, following she&#39s succumbs, then months afterwards decides she does not want to keep on in that part, he only can not comprehend why she would not be content in remaining his mistress for the foreseeable foreseeable future. He forces her to take his actual physical improvements, applying his sexual prowess to generate sexual want in her, even although she fights him, he possibly forces himself on her anyway, or, worn out from having difficulties, she lastly presents in, stating for example, “go forward and rape me”. Adrien hated going by means of her resistance circumstance each individual time, but he nevertheless would not take no for an solution.

Whilst it&#39s produced obvious to the reader that on just one stage she needs to do it with him, on yet another stage, she&#39s fighting from it in a wrestle to keep her dignity and integrity to herself. She can not escape due to the fact he&#39s produced it physically not possible for her to go away him, so she&#39s executing the only factor she can, trying to be legitimate to herself. His selfishness does not allow for him to respect her wishes.

For the reader, this repeated abuse puts a downer on the romance facet of the story. One more concern I experienced in the romance office was the deficiency of other conversation proven amongst the two most important people. There was not more than enough of the story specified to demonstrating the positive sides of their creating relationship.

Adrien has to be dragged kicking and screaming to the realisation of how a lot he&#39s appear to like Christina. When he lastly arrives to grips with this, circumstances separate the people and the reader is wanting ahead to the outpouring and declaration of like, but it all gets rushed and hardly ever essentially comes about, which helps make the reader experience cheated. The hero hardly ever apologises for the hurtful and insulting items he&#39s said about and accomplished to her, and he hardly ever essentially verbalises that he enjoys her. It&#39s an unsatisfying ending that&#39s wrapped up way also immediately. The tyrannical hero hardly ever redeems himself in the conclude of the e-book. The story lacked the psychological intensity that&#39s envisioned to be there in a romance novel. …

Kudus once more #lawyerlife #advocate #peradi #himpunanadvokatmudaindonesiabersatu …

Kudus once more 😂😂 #lawyerlife #advocate #peradi #himpunanadvokatmudaindonesiabersatu #hamibersatu ##attorney #pengacara #pengacaraindonesia

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Can you get sued for Zika?? Zika has already manufactured its way into our pretty very own back again…

Can you get sued for Zika?? Zika has already manufactured its way into our pretty very own backyard listed here in #Miami. What we already know about the virus is that it poses the major threat to pregnant ladies and their fetuses, which can develop severe issues and delivery defects. What you may not know are the various concentrations of liability concerned in contracting this virus. Go through the entire tale on our most current @huffingtonpost short article (connection in bio). #huffingtonpost #zika #lawsuit #miami #lawyer #personalinjury #coralgables #blog site #blogger #legalblog #accidentlawyer #zikainfection

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The Ideal Legal Steroid Is Out There and It Performs

So you want to construct muscle mass, perform out and question if you can discover the ideal legal steroid out there that’s out there. Perfectly you are in luck for the reason that there are some legal steroids and the ideal legal steroid won’t even need a prescription in the United States.

Anabolic steroids are illegal thanks to the dangerous aspect outcomes. Liver toxicity, hormonal difficulties, steroid rage are all very terrible items. Legal steroids however do not have people aspect outcomes, but do boost muscle mass expansion just like a steroid. The ideal legal steroid I have read about is Mesobolin or Tridenosen.

Mesobolin is the ideal legal steroid substitute. It is also a excellent substitute for anabolic steroids that have too quite a few dangerous aspect outcomes. Mesobolin is a combination of two prescription only anabolic brokers. 1 is derived from a plant that stimulates protein synthesis as excellent as the steroid Dianabol. The protein synthesis with Mesobolin is basically executed much more speedily.

The new steroid on the block and one that is getting lovers in Europe and Australia is Tridenosen. It may be the ideal legal steroid out there for the reason that of all it does. It is not an anabolic steroid as it does not have an effect on hormones with anabolic outcomes. Tridenosen has marvelous retention homes and raises the generation of normal hormones such as testosterone, expansion hormone and others. It is anabolic, thermogenic, and raises blood supply to skeletal muscle groups. The major cause Tridenosen is incredible is the major part which is ATP or adenosine triphosphate. It gives substantial levels of mobile energy which in switch promotes a substantial volume of protein synthesis.…

Genuine Estate Fairness and the Equitable Doctrine of See

In the situation of equitable doctrine, these equitable estates and other rights may possibly come up, wherever there was one extremely crucial distinction involving them and the legal estates acknowledged by the Common Law. A legal proper is explained to be a proper from the complete planet. What is intended by that is that if a gentleman purchases a Jamaican household for sale and there comes about to exist in excess of it some legal rights in the fingers of a person else, the purchaser will be certain by the proper quickly, irrespective of no matter whether he knew of its existence or not.

An equitable proper even so was only binding on a purchaser of a legal Jamaica authentic estate if he knew of its existence at the time when he acquired it. To set this in a various way, the equitable doctrine of observe is that an equitable proper is legitimate from every person except a bona fide purchaser of a legal estate for price without observe of the existence of that equitable proper.

There are selected phrases utilised in the assertion of the equitable doctrine of observe in the previous paragraph which need some even more clarification.

Bona fide – In this occasion means of “in good religion”.

Purchaser – This word utilised listed here, as often in authentic home regulation does not mean simply the gentleman who purchases land. It features also any human being whom the land passes or else other than by descent.

For price – A purchaser for price is one who has offered income or money’s worth for the estate.

See – There are three varieties of observe which may influence the purchaser of a legal estate underneath the equitable doctrine. These notices are:

(a) True See: In this situation the purchaser himself has know-how of the existence of the equitable proper. If this were the only type of observe which influenced the purchaser a gentleman who is crafty may possibly consider good treatment not to examine as well deeply the history of any land for sale in Jamaica which he proposed to purchase and so be certain of having no know-how of any equitable rights. To prevent this from occurring there is yet another type of observe, particularly

(b) Constructive observe: Where the purchaser would have uncovered the existence of some equitable proper experienced he utilised standard diligence and treatment in investigating the history of the Jamaica home, he is considered to have observe of that proper even while he was not essentially knowledgeable of it himself. So if A is instructed that the title deeds of the home features, say, a Will of 1930 and the Will in truth grants an equitable proper to X, A will be considered to have observe of the equitable proper even while he did not bother to glance at the Will.

(c) Imputed observe: Last but not least any know-how of equitable rights which is gained by any agent of the purchaser, these types of as a solicitor or estate agent is imputed to the purchaser himself. This applies both of those to any precise know-how of the agent and also to the constructive know-how as in (b) earlier mentioned. A single prime case in point we like to use are houses for sale in Hanover Jamaica.

Source by Colin Scott

Handling Stress in the Legal Occupation

Handling Stress in the Legal Occupation

Receiving matters performed is all that issues and who is aware this philosophy far better than all those in the legal profession? An attorney retains a extremely arduous and demanding work and a lawyer qualified prospects a extremely busy and annoying daily life. There are generally hundreds of matters to be performed in a day customers to communicate to, scenario research to go through, mountainous volume of paper get the job done, subordinates to mentor, and all of it 24 hours a day 7 times a 7 days. Aside from this, they have to be certain that they get the job done for billable hours, as properly as satisfy the anticipations of legal employers. The really hard get the job done that they place in tends to make them get the job done for prolonged hours leaving a lot less time for spouse and children and peace. This tends to make their daily life extremely annoying.

The tension stage at instances peaks and many legal professionals end up supplying up their legal profession because of to this rationale. Higher ranges of tension make them dissatisfied by the form of daily life they guide. They turn out to be extremely dissatisfied with their legal occupations. And so end up switching occupations.

A different rationale for an elevated tension stage according to an knowledgeable lawyer like A. Harrison Barnes is that just about every lawyer wishes to be successful in his legal profession. And this mindset qualified prospects to a superior stage of tension which in the long run tends to make their get the job done reduce concentration and inevitably reduce monitor of their objectives.

The tension at get the job done impacts the two own and expert interactions states A. Harrison Barnes. These sufferings in the long run guide to undesirable physical and mental situations with indications this sort of as depression, slumber disturbances, complications, superior blood tension and many other physical sicknesses. Function suffers together with deteriorating wellbeing productiveness declines you will not be ready to offer with customers in an powerful way, and your legal employers will not be delighted with the final results.

Consequently a annoying daily life qualified prospects all the way downhill, states A. Harrison Barnes. You have to understandthat everything has an equal importance in daily life and you need to be certain that you give equal importance to everything that is element of your daily life. Learn to handle just about every predicament properly and this can be probable only if you have great management in excess of your legal profession as properly as your daily life.

Stress administration authorities can enable you offer with predicaments far better and help in main a extra peaceful daily life and not a annoying a single suggests A. Harrison Barnes. The initial recommendation is to consider no matter if your legal apply region fits your personality or not. You will guide a daily life of tension if your interest is distinct from the get the job done you do. You will not be ready to conduct up to the mark you will not be ready to stand up to your legal employer’s anticipations. For illustration, if you have an interest in corporate regulation but you are doing work as a litigator, you will not be ready to get the job done successfully. Consequently, it is most crucial that you love the field that you are doing work in.

Even the ecosystem the place you are doing work issues. A. Harrison Barnes states that all those desiring a laidback, snug daily life need to be doing work in the govt and not in a personal company the place the legal professionals have a extremely challenging daily life. Consequently make sure that you select your field and get the job done ecosystem discerningly prior to you stage into a regulation work.

The most crucial thing that you need to do is consider management of your routine and get the job done ecosystem by staying extra emphatic. You will be in a whole lot of tension whilst managing obligations if you are not assertive. You have to find out to say ‘no’ and established limits to the endeavours you place in. This way you will be ready to manage your time properly. When you get started expressing ‘no’ you will have a lot less get the job done to do which will in the long run cut down your tension and you will be ready to get the job done with a absolutely free thoughts.

The life-style the attorneys select for them selves is also the rationale at the rear of a annoying daily life. Nowadays just about every lawyer wishes to have a lavish daily life and for that they have to get the job done lengthier hours and cut down on their own daily life. They get the job done extra and barely give time to their own needs. This way they make extra annoying life for them selves which jeopardizes the two spouse and children daily life and profession. A peaceful life-style the place you are extra in management will develop material gains at a slower speed but aid extra productiveness because of to peace at property and in the business office. Choosing to avoid tension is the suitable prolonged term choice.

Source by Elizabeth Martinez

Rewards Of Employing A Employees Compensation Attorney

Lots of wounded personnel requested the query, why seek the services of a perform comp lawyer? There are quite a few factors to seek the services of a personnel compensation attorney on the other hand I’ll test to summarize the most crucial added benefits to choosing a perform injury lawyer.

The worker’s insurance coverage firm will have a perform injury attorney assigned to defend them from you and your perform comp declare. Their adjusters and perform injury legal professionals are really skilled and will typically circle all-around you. An skilled personnel compensation lawyer who only represents wounded personnel can make sure you are staying handled reasonably and obtain the perform comp added benefits you should have if you have been wounded on the task.

A community and skilled personnel comp attorney can aid you with selecting the suitable physician, negotiate with the insurance coverage firm and depict you at the Employees Compensation Appeals Board. Most personnel comp instances settle before demo, and an skilled attorney can get you the settlement you should have. If your scenario goes go to demo, you are going to want an attorney familiar with that court with yrs of demo expertise. Symbolizing you is not proposed until you have yrs of personnel comp expertise and information.

Employing an skilled personnel compensation attorney is cheap. A particular injury attorney will charge anyplace from 33% to fifty% of your closing incident settlement. Worker’s comp legal professionals typically perform for a fifteen% payment of your closing settlement. Mainly because of the attorney’s yrs of information and expertise, the lawyer typically pays for himself or herself by the worth they deliver to the perform comp scenario. If your declare is denied, a perform injury attorney can surely help you.

A reputable and community personnel comp lawyer will be familiar with your regional Employees Compensation Appeals Board and their judges. The Appeals Board is the court where your scenario will be listened to. The perform injury lawyer will preserve you from the perform comp paperwork nightmare which is component of the program. You will no lengthier have to offer with a personnel comp insurance coverage firm as your perform injury attorney will consider above that undertaking for you. You will not have to offer with perform comp provider any lengthier. If you have endured a perform injury, you previously have ample to fret about. Your perform injury lawyer can also help you acquire added benefits if you are unable to perform as a end result of your perform comp injury. Those added benefits may well be in the variety of non permanent incapacity from the personnel compensation insurance coverage firm or in the variety of condition incapacity payments in your personnel compensation declare is denied.

Employing the suitable community skilled Worker’s Comp attorney, ideally a member of the California Applicant Lawyers Affiliation, can help you navigate your scenario from beginning to conclusion for the ideal feasible consequence for you.…

The Legislation And Its Branches

Legislation is said to be the greatest science. Legislation retains societies performing and in purchase. It is one of the most essential social establishments of modern society and without it modern society would damage by itself. Rules notify the members and governors of modern society about the manner in which they must act. These policies are enforced by police forces. Rules can be changed by common desire or by the government. Legal professionals and judges interpret the legislation and they&#39re duty is to act as an middleman involving the individuals and the legislation.

The legislation is divided into two principal branches. These are – General public Legislation and Personal Legislation. These two branches can be divided even more but the distinction involving the branches of private and public legislation is incredibly small. The branches generally overlap and it is only by convention that the branches exist.

The branches of public legislation are as follows:

1. Felony Legislation: offers with crimes. These crimes can range from theft to murder. The guidelines beneath this segment outline the offences, states the policies of arrest, and the achievable punishments. In most countries guidelines are outlined by the structure and the central or federal government. Having said that in some countries like the United States, states have their own guidelines as very well.

two. Constitutional Law: defines the policies and code of perform for the government and its several departments. It also states the most essential rights of the individuals. These rights these kinds of as freedom of speech and freedom of faith are certain to all citizens of that nation. These rights are upheld by the courts in the course of the nation.

three. Administrative Legislation: governs the operations of government organizations. These are the organizations that regulate several facets of our lives like banking, communications and trade. It also contains social welfare courses, social safety and coverage.

4. Intercontinental Legislation: This legislation is meant to make dealings between nations much easier. This legislation is a lot more like protocol and is incredibly hard to enforce.

The branches of private legislation are as follows:

1. Deal and Industrial Legislation: These guidelines deal only with issues that entail contracts between individuals. By definition a agreement is a legal settlement between persons or individuals. Contracts are needed in purchase to have out each day company. Disputes arising from contracts are dealt with beneath this segment of the legislation.

two. Tort Legislation: These guidelines deal with injuries prompted to a particular person by other men and women or firms. This contains the unlawful use of a particular person&#39s residence these kinds of as his or her identify.

three. Assets Legislation: As the heading suggests this segment offers with the possession and use of residence. This residence could anything from a creating to a auto.

4. Inheritance or Succession Legislation: These deal with the rights of inheritance of residence. These guidelines are diverse in all countries.

five. Family Law: These govern the legal facet of the loved ones, these kinds of as the policies of adoption, relationship, divorce and youngster aid.

6. Company Legislation: offers with company and stockholders. This branch is generally classed together with agreement and business legislation as company legislation. …

Are Your Foods fifty% Deductible or a hundred% Deductible?

There are many unique regulations to figure out if a meal is a authentic business price. These unique regulations contain assembly the business intent prerequisite and the regular and essential prerequisite. In this posting, it is assumed that the meal has fulfilled these demands and is certainly a business price.

*Typical Rule

Foods are generally fifty% deductible. This means when a business pays for a meal, only fifty% of that amount is deducted on the tax return. It truly is extremely significant to know the exceptions to this rule due to the fact some meals are a hundred% deductible!

Foods that are fifty% deductible contain:

– Foods with purchasers, shoppers and suppliers.
– Foods with staff
– Foods with partners, shareholders and directors
– Foods in the course of business vacation
– Foods even though attending a business seminar or convention

**Exception to the Rule (This is a terrific exception!)

Some meals are a hundred% deductible! These meals contain:

– Foods for the business holiday getaway party or other social celebration (like the company picnic).

Business office snacks presented to staff at the business. This may perhaps contain coffee, soda, h2o, sweet, donuts, and related snacks.

Foods presented on the employer’s premises to additional than half of the staff for the convenience of the employer. An illustration of this is when a business supplies meals to staff in get to keep them performing weekends or performing afterwards than normal. This is for the employer’s convenience to keep the staff at the business.

Foods for which the business is reimbursed for the price. For illustration, if a business can take a customer to lunch and then expenditures the customer for that lunch in a independent line product on the invoice, then the business can fully deduct that meal.

Ever surprise why some accountant or attorney invoices display the meals price as a independent line product? Because it would make the meal price fully deductible to them and would make it fifty% deductible to the customer! Be watchful if you are on the acquiring conclusion of this invoice!

If the meal price is not especially itemized on the invoice (and just lumped into the assistance fee), then the meal is only fifty% deductible to the business and a hundred% deductible to the customer.

*Vital Idea: When it arrives to making ready your tax return, it is straightforward to ignore which meals fulfilled the demands to be a hundred% deductible. And if your tax preparer has under no circumstances questioned you this it most possible means all of your meals are remaining issue to the fifty% limitation ! It truly is ideal to seize this information when you essentially have the meal. You can do this by setting up two meal price accounts in your books:

Foods – fifty% deductible
Foods – a hundred% deductible

Merely code it the right account when you enter it in your accounting plan (such as QuickBooks). Then it is all completely ready for your tax preparer with no more do the job!

Supply by Tom Wheelwright

Patents and Ethics in the Pharmaceutical Industry

Abstract

This paper is concerned with the impacts of strict patents in the pharmaceutical industry, focusing on the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) Agreement. It discusses the historical and current policy context, to better understand how strict patents affect the availability of essential drugs in developing countries.

The research shows that the pharmaceutical industry prioritises profit above health. Strict patents reduce the availability and affordability of new essential drugs in developing countries, and thereby have a negative impact on the health of the world’s poor. Larger pharmaceutical companies benefit more than smaller companies because they have a monopoly in the industry. They invest more in research and development and, linked to economies of scale, are better positioned to exploit markets for new drugs.

The example of India highlights the importance of generic production and essential drugs in developing countries. It shows that while TRIPs promotes economic growth of the industry and encourages investment in research and development of new drugs, it increases the prices of new essential drugs, thereby isolating benefits from the majority poor populations in developing countries.

The paper suggests that based on historical and current trade policy, developed countries have an ethical obligation to allow poorer countries to develop infrastructure for their pharmaceutical industry, a responsibility not being fulfilled. It suggests TRIPs be revised under a more ethical framework. This includes increasing public funding of research and development, shortening the length of patents and allowing developing countries to generically produce essential drugs.

The paper highlights the interconnectedness of social, economic and political factors that could increase the availability of essential drugs in developing countries. It highlights the importance of better understanding the issues surrounding strict patents, and why the scientific community is critical to this process, in terms raising awareness and collaborating with independent organisations and concerned citizens to ultimately press governments for change at the national and international level.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
1.1 What are Patent Laws?
1.2 What is TRIPs?
1.3 Focus and Structure of the Paper

2. Pharmaceutical Industry for Profit or for Improving Health?
2.1 Scale of Profits
2.2 Investment Priorities
2.3 Diffusion

3. Essential Drugs and Generic Production

4. Impacts of TRIPs
4.1 Main advantages
4.2 Main disadvantages
4.3 The Doha Agreement and Compulsory Licensing

5. Conclusions

6. References

1. INTRODUCTION

‘As the ancient scourge of polio was rolled back by his vaccine 50 years ago, Jonas Salk, the inventor of the polio vaccine was asked why he never took a patent out on the medicine, a patent that would have made him wildly rich. “There is no patent,” he replied … “Could you patent the sun?”‘ (Salon.com magazine 2001).

This paper explores the impacts of pharmaceutical patents on drug availability in the third world, focusing on the impacts of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) Agreement. It highlights the value of essential drugs and generic production in developing countries, using India as a case study. It also explores alternatives to TRIPs and the role of the scientific community.

1.1 What are patent laws?

A patent can be defined as ‘a monopoly right granted to person who has invented a new and useful article, an improvement of an existing article or a new process of making an article’. It consists of an exclusive right to manufacture the new invented article, or manufacture an article according to the invented process for a limited period. During the term of patent, the owner of the patent, i.e. the patentee can prevent any other person from using the potential invention .

Figure 1: Brief History of Patent Law

The timeline below illustrates the brief recent history of patents in the world .

1880-1882
Patent statutes introduced in most European countries

1883
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property – cornerstone of the modern international patent system.

1947 International Patent Institute (IIB) established at the Hague

1970
Patent Co-operation Treaty signed in Washington, D.C.

1978
International Patent Institute integrated into the European Patent Office (EPO)

1979
Bayh-Dole Act passed-granted permission to U.S. universities to license and profit from federally sponsored research*

1980
International Patent Documentation Centre (INPADOC) integrated into the EPO
In the pharmaceutical industry patents have a straightforward objective. They provide a strong incentive for companies to invest in the research and development of new drugs, knowing that they will be able to recuperate costs and, subsequently, profit from the new drug. However, patents enable parent companies to control the price and availability of new drugs. There is no competition from other companies to produce the drug, which would usually lower the price. Thus, increasing the length of patents can reduce the availability of new essential new drugs in developing countries, with knock on health problems.

Essential drugs can be broadly defined as those that satisfy the health care needs of the majority of the population. They should, therefore, ideally be available at all times in adequate amounts; in the appropriate dosage forms; at reasonable (affordable) price; and, meeting the criteria of quality, safety and efficacy (New Strait Times 1998).
Under the term of a patent, drugs, essential or non-essential, can only be produced by the parent company. This means that there is no competition from other companies to produce the drug, and the parent company can charge a high price for the drug, effectively making the drug unavailable for poorer people.

New drugs tend to be more available to developed countries, because people are more affluent and can afford higher prices. For this reason, pharmaceutical companies tend to market their drugs at developed countries. Overall, developed countries benefit more from new technology and advances in science because their governments, companies, and people can afford to buy into the technology.

The World Trade Organisation’s (WTO) Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement, which extends the length of patents, enables companies to significantly increase their profits and increase the technology gap between developed and developing countries.

1.2 What is TRIPs?

The Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) was added to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) at the end of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations in 1994. It came into full force in January 2005, and its inclusion by the World Trade Organisation (WTO) was the ‘culmination of a program of intense lobbying’ by the United States, supported by the EU, Japan and other developed countries .

The United States strategy of linking trade policy to intellectual property standards can be traced to senior management at Pfizer (a large United States pharmaceutical firm) in the early 1980s. Pfizer mobilised corporations and made maximising intellectual property privileges the number one priority of United States trade policy .

According to the WTO, ‘TRIPs is an attempt to strike a balance between the long term social objective of providing incentives for future inventions and creation, and the short term objective of allowing people to use existing inventions and creations’ .

The following requirements of TRIPs all have a bearing on the pharmaceutical use of patents .

? Copyright must be granted automatically, and not based upon any “formality”, such as registrations or systems of renewal.

? National exceptions to copyright (such as “fair use” in the United States) must be tightly constrained.

? Patents must be granted in all “fields of technology” (regardless of whether it is in the public interest to do so).

? Exceptions to patent law must be limited almost as strictly as those to copyright law. In each state, intellectual property laws may not offer any benefits to local citizens which are not available to citizens of other TRIPs signatories (this is called “national treatment”). TRIPs also has a most favoured nation clause.

? Patents in the pharmaceutical industry will apply for 20 years, instead of 10 to 15 years.

Some developing countries began to grant their own patent protection in the late 1980s, but TRIPs is a compulsory requirement for any country who wants to be a member of the World Trade Centre, and with that memberchip access to international markets and trade relationships. Countries which do not adopt TRIPs can be disciplined through the WTO’s dispute settlement mechanism, which is capable of authorising trade sanctions against dissident states . Therefore, the economic and poltical threats, which could cripple a poor economy, effectively forced developing countries to ratify the agreement.

The TRIPs agreement makes it easier to obtain and enforce patents. It increases the length of pharmaceutical patents, from 10 to 15 years to 20 years, which encourages companies to invest more in research and development and promotes economic growth. However, it favours developed countries, which have the capacity to enforce their rights globally, and create more exclusive trade options under the Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs). Developed countries have more pharmaceutical infrastructure and companies that are used to using patents to make profit.

1.3 Focus and structure of this paper

Chapter 1 introduced the main contentions of using strict patents in the pharmaceutical industry. It explained how patents work, and the main changes that TRIPs will make to the pharmaceutical industry.

Chapter 2 shows the monopoly of a handful of large pharmaceutical companies in the pharmaceutical industry. It provides a sense of the scale of the profits made by these companies, contrasting the investment priorities and types of drugs produced with those that are needed in developing countries. The Chapter debates whether the industry is for profit or health, briefly highlighting how companies make false claims through advertising in developing countries.

Chapter 3 introduces the idea of essential drugs and generic production, exploring the benefits with a case study of India. Chapter 4 shows how TRIPs will restrict generic production of essential drugs, and the impacts this will have on the majority poor populations in developing countries. The conclusion, Chapter 5, suggests how TRIPs could be revised under a more ethical framework, exploring the historical and current drug policy context, with particular emphasis on the role of scientists.

2. PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY FOR PROFIT OR HEALTH?

In an attempt to understand how pharmaceutical companies control the availability of essential drugs, and use patents to make substantial profits, this chapter debates whether the pharmaceutical industry is for profit or health. It looks at the scale of profits made by the pharmaceutical industry and their investment priorities, also challenging whether ‘diffusion’ of biotechnology works to provide essential drugs to developing countries.

2.1 Scale of profits

There is a very familiar trend in the international pharmaceutical industry. A handful of multinational companies, originating from developed countries, have a great deal of economic power, which gives them control over drug availability and health. They also lobby governments to make trade policy which suits their profit making agenda. In 1996 the first ten multinational pharmaceutical companies accounted for approximately 36 per cent of the world pharmaceutical sales of US$ 251 billion .

Table 1: The World’s Top Ten Pharmaceutical Companies in 2003

Company Pharma Profit ($million) Pharma Sales ($ million) Pharma Operational Profit Margin
Pfizer 12,920.0 28,288.0 45.7%
Merck & Co. 10,213.6 21,631.0 47.2%
GlaxoSmithKline 7,598.2 26,979.0 28.2%
Johnson & Johnson 5,787.0 17,151.0 33.7%
AstraZeneca 4,006.0 17,841.0 22.5%
Novartis 3,857.3 13,497.4 28.6%
Wyeth 3,505.5 12,386.6 28.3%
Aventis 2,969.6 15,705.4 18.9%
Abbott 2,739.0 9,304.0 29.4%
Takeda 2,446.6 6,838.3 35.8%
Group Subtotal 56,042.9 169,621.8
Average 31.8%

Source: Adapted from Scrip Report 2003

The pharmaceutical sector racks up the largest legal profits of any industry, with an average 18.6 % return on revenues in 2001 (Resnik 2001).

However, Table 1 shows that the top ten companies achieved a much higher average profit margin of 31.8% in 2003. Thy have a monopoly over the industry. Linked to economies of scale, larger companies can exploit larger market penetration to increase their profits. For example, Pfizer and Merck & CO, two out of the top three pharmaceutical companies in 2003 according to gross sales, had a profit margin of 45.7% and 47.2% respectively. This was much higher than the average profit margin of the top ten companies (31.8%), which illustrates the …